Vision Problems and Eye Diseases

Vision problem

Most common vision problems are genetically determined, such as strabismus, amblyopia, myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism and other refractive errors.

Eye Diseases

Both genetic factors and diseases can cause blindness.

Blindness among Infants: over 60% of cases are caused by inherited eye diseases, such as congenital cataracts, congenital glaucoma, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy and eye malformations.

Leading causes of blindness among Adults: glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. A large portion of cases appear to be inherited. Researchers have mapped several genes for glaucoma and are starting to identify genes involved in macular degeneration.

Chronic Glaucoma

Common cause of blindness High pressure in the eye increases the risk of developing chronic glaucoma. The disease occurs after the age of 40 and then increases in frequency with age. The diagnosis of chronic glaucoma is made on the basis of characteristic bleaching of the optic nerve and failure of the visual field. Chronic glaucoma can often be treated by lowering the eye pressure with eye drops, laser or surgery.

Chronic glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness in Denmark, but the exact incidence is unknown. It is estimated that a few percent of the population over the age of 40 have chronic glaucoma. The incidence increases with age.

- A person with chronic glaucoma has neither pain nor other discomfort in the eyes. Most cases of chronic glaucoma are discovered by chance during a routine examination of the eyes. The sharp vision, which one uses to read and to watch TV with, is usually preserved for the longest time. Only when there has been significant damage to the optic nerve will you notice the outcomes in the visual field. Then it can be difficult to prevent further aggravation.

- Regular check-ups with an ophthalmologist If you have a hereditary predisposition to chronic glaucoma, you should have your eyes examined once a year by an ophthalmologist. If one experiences overlooking objects in the field of view, you should seek professional help. It is important to be aware that treating glaucoma is usually lifelong. The purpose of the treatment is to prevent the vision from deteriorating. There is no treatment that can improve vision and there can be side effects associated with all the types of treatments that are available.

Acute Glaucoma

Acute glaucoma can be caused by a sudden blockage of fluid drainage from the eye, leading to an increase in eye pressure, severe pain and blurred vision.
Untreated glaucoma leads to blindness, but can be treated medically or surgically if treatment is started in time.
Acute glaucoma is rare. It most often occurs in middle-aged and elderly people, but very rarely in people under 40 years of age. 90% of patients with glaucoma are farsighted. In the Nordic countries, 7% of patients with glaucoma have the acute narrow-angle form.

- Acute glaucoma always occurs only in one eye, but if you have had acute glaucoma in one eye, there is a greater risk of also getting glaucoma in the other eye.
Impaired vision, and in the worst case, blindness on the affected eye, is a dreaded complication of acute glaucoma.
It starts suddenly and unexpectedly. The patient does not notice anything until after several years.
It tends to develop in the evening or in dark environments.
Pay special attention to blurring of vision, as well as pain and rainbow vision when staying in the dark.
Headaches and severe eye pain. Nausea and possible vomiting are also typical. Some may find that their vision is blurred or that they see rainbow-colored rings around light sources. The eye often turns red and there is tearing.

regular check-ups with an ophthalmologist Without prompt treatment, the condition will lead to blindness in the eye. Even with treatment, some damage to the optic nerve often develops and, as a result, impaired vision. Proper post-treatment can prevent new seizures.

If you experience pain, blurred vision or rainbow vision when staying in the dark, seek eye care.


Cataracts are blurs in the lens of the eye that are found in the front of the eye behind the cornea. They can be acute or chronic. Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness, having affected 18 million population, or 48% of all blindness in the world. Age factor: Among people of 75-year-olds, about half have blur in the lens, which affects vision. Nearly all in their 80s have various degrees of opacity in the lens.

- They develop gradually and almost imperceptibly, but can worsen quickly within a few weeks. Patients do not necessarily feel pain, burning or itching in the eyes, or any discomfort if the changes are modest. The genes usually start on one eye, but over time, both eyes will be affected. For example, - reduced vision, both at a distance and close by - double vision, which does not disappear when you cover one eye - problems with glare, especially if suddenly exposed to bright light...

Cataracts cannot be prevented. However, the risk of getting cataracts is reduced if you can prevent or treat diseases such as diabetes, injuries or other eye diseases.

Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy

Population-based research and studies have indicated there is a correlation between Obesity and the eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related cataract and maculopathy.

All parts of the eye can be affected by diabetes. The most serious complication is Diabetic Retinopathy. It can lead to irreversible blindness.

Diabetes can lead to cataracts at an earlier age than in the rest of the population. In rare cases, paralysis of the eye muscles can also occur, which however can disappear on its own. 

The most common cause of myopia and blindness Changes in the retina of the eye due to diabetes are a common cause of low vision and blindness among younger adults in the Western world.

In Denmark, several programs are running to check type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients, depending on how severe the changes are and the advices of their ophthalmologists.

During pregnancy, people need more frequent check-ups and seek advices from their ophthalmologists.

- The goal of prevention and treatment is to prevent the development of the changes in the retina and to prevent them from leading to damage to vision.

Systematic screening can significantly reduce the incidence of blindness due to diabetes. The development of the changes on the retina can be prevented or delayed by strict regulation of blood sugar and blood pressure.
Join a screening program with eye photography and follow the advices of ophthalmologists. If futher changes threaten the vision, they can be treated with medication, laser beams, or operations.

Complications of Other Diseases

Eye Complications in Other Diseases: high blood pressure (Hypertension), eye damages, blood clogs in the retinal arterioles, lyme disease malnutrition, etc.